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Stockholm, Sweden:

Press freedom, the plight of refugees and climate modeling: 12 men and only one woman won the Nobel Prize this year for providing “the greatest benefit to mankind.”

While four women won the Nobel Prize in 2020 – close to the 2009 record of five – the prizes remain male-dominated, as far fewer women are involved in academic research than 20, 30 or even 40 years ago. reach the top level. .

In 2019, there was only one female award winner, and in 2017 and 2016 there was none.

Here are the 2021 winners in each discipline:

Medicine

American scientists David Julius and Ardem Patpoutian won the Medicine Prize for discoveries on the receptors for temperature and touch.

“Their discoveries unlock one of nature’s mysteries by explaining the molecular basis for sensing heat, cold and mechanical force,” the jury said.

Research from the two, conducted independently of each other in the late 1990s and 2000s, is being used to develop treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including chronic pain.

-Economics –

Three US-based economists, Canadian-American David Card, Israeli-American Joshua Angist and Dutch-American Guido Imbens, won the Economics Prize for their work on the labor market using “natural experiments”, or observational cause-and-effect studies. has revolutionized empirical research in the field.

Card’s work focuses on the labor market effects of minimum wage, immigration and education.

Meanwhile, Angrist and Imbens devised a methodological way to interpret data from “natural experiments,” showing how accurate cause-and-effect conclusions can be.

(Except for the title, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

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